I still remember 5 years ago when I decided to do my first PowerShell class at Derbycon and some of my buddies told me I was nuts for teaching what they called a "Toy Language" I have used Windows PowerShell almost daily for work since 2007, started with my previous job setting up and securing Exchange 2007 servers, once PowerCLI from VMware come out it became my go to environment for automating and hardening ESX and ESXi environments. Once we figured how to run encoded commands it became a must for post-exploitation since it gave me access to ADSI, COM, Win32 API, .NET API and all sorts of third party .NET library I could get my hands on. Some kind of PowerShell ability has been present in most major comercial products one way or another and now Metasploit is taking it a step further thanks to the great work of OJ Reeves also known as @TheColonial by adding a Metrerpeter extension for unmanaged Windows PowerShell Runspace. This extension is based on the work from Lee Christensen and his UnmanagedPowerShell project.Read More
In the previous blog post when we look at the object returned it has all of the information properly parsed and shown so I do not have to run around parsing fields and converting them but for me a critical piece of information is not shown and that is the SID of the forest domain. If you have played with analysis of some logs and with Mimikatz attacks you know the SID is of great importance. For this we will use the System.DirectoryServices namespace, specifically the DirecotryEntry class that represents a path in AD.Read More
In the last blog post we covered setting the goals for the project, general guidelines, how I set up a project in GitHub and the creation of the module manifest. In this blog post we will cover some of the API around ActiveDirectory that we can use in Windows PowerShell to access and query it either from a host already in the domain or with alternate credentials against a specific host.
Currently when working in Windows PowerShell there are 4 main ways to interact with Active Directory:
- ActiveDirectory module - gets installed with RSAT or when then Domain Controller role is added to a server. Varies per version of Windows.
- System.DirectoryServices Namespace - it is a .Net wrapper around the ADSI (Active Directory Service Interface) COM object. It represents a specific path or Object in AD allowing for the pulling of information and modification.
- System.DirectoryServices.ActiveDirectory namespace - It provides several .Net classes that abstract AD services. Provides access to manipulating forest, domain, site, subnet, partition, and schema are part of the object model.
- System.DirectoryServices.AccountManagement namespace provides uniform access and manipulation of user, computer, and group security principals
I got in my head this week that I would like to write a Windows PowerShell module for getting information from Active Directory for the purpose of gathering information to aid in detecting miss configurations and also aid in incident response. My idea is to write the module and start publishing blog posts as I go through the process of writing the code and how I go about it. This will be my first experience with Pester also so I think it would be a fun adventure.
I start by setting goals for the module, these are:
- All output from each function will be objects.
- I will assign each object a custom type so I can create custom views for the output.
- The module must not depend on the ActiveDirectory module that ships with the different RSAT tools and use .NET and COM so as to leverage the use alternate credentials.
- Module should be able to pull information as a base for Users, Groups, Computers, Sites, Domains, Forest, OUs and GPOs.
- Module will be PSv3 or above so as to use new improvements int he latest versions of Windows PowerShell.
In security many people see solutions of problem as a whole, all or nothing. Many times even worst they see the security as a hindrance to the delivery of a project or even day to day actions. Even internally in some organization with the size and level of maturity of having both a Red and Blue team you have rivalry between both. In this blog post I would like to cover my idea on how we should think when measuring the performance of the internals sub teams inside of security. Some of this ideas can be even expanded later to how the team can interact with the DevOps, Support, Sales, Finance and other teams in the organization if there is a possibility to unify the metrics to provide a series or high level or single goal for the organization as a whole.